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Instructions to the authors

The Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy) is a periodical dedicated to the publication of original scientific work, reviews, and communications in the field of Pharmacognosy (the study of biologically active natural products).

1. General rules

1.1 All submitted manuscripts must be unpublished. The simultaneous submission of manuscripts describing the same work to other journals is not recommended. The Journal will accept contributions on the understanding that the author has obtained the necessary authority for publication; in the case of several authors, each of them should have consented to the corresponding author.

1.2 The Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia accepts for publication original scientific work, reviews, and communication articles written only in English. The content of the text is of entire responsibility of the author(s), and does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Editor, Editorial Board or members of the Advisory Board.

1.3 Manuscripts written by authors whose mother language is not English should be checked by a native speaker or a professional language editing service before submission. Assistance of independent editing services can be found at http://www.sbfgnosia.org.br/revista/englishassistance.html. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and the use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

1.4 The Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia reserves the right to submit all received manuscripts to ad hoc referees, whose names will be kept confidential, and will have the authority to decide on the pertinence for acceptance. Referees may send back manuscripts to Editor-in-Chief, or to Section Editors, for transmission to the author(s) with suggestions for necessary alterations, which are to be made in order to conform to the standards and editorial rules of the Journal.

1.5 All articles involving studies with humans or animals should have the approval and authorization of the Ethics Committees on Research on Human Beings or on Animals of the institutions to which the author(s) belong.

1.6 All plant, microorganism, marine organism materials used in the described research should be supported by an indication of the site (including GPS coordinates, if possible) and country of origin, the name of the person identifying the biological material, and the location of the voucher specimen.

1.7 Authors should be prepared to provide documentary evidence that approval for collection was afforded from an appropriate authority in the country of collection and, if applicable, to follow the rules concerning the biodiversity rights.

1.8 It is desirable manuscripts dealing with essential oils that contain seasonal harvest and biological activity exploring mechanisms of action or synergism.

1.9 The journal will not accept responsibility for research works which do not comply with the author’s country of residence legislation.

1.10 We strongly recommend that authors avoid stating that the popular or traditional use of a certain herb was confirmed by pre-clinical, in vitro or in vivo tests using animals.

1.11 The following immediate rejection criteria apply:

  1. the manuscript does not fall into the areas of interest of the Journal;
  2. manuscripts not formatted in accordance with the standards of the journal (see Section 3);
  3. the manuscript results are preliminary;
  4. manuscripts reporting activity data without comparison to a reference, or without a positive control, or no proper controls, and not based on adequate statistics;
  5. the biological source (e.g. plant, microorganism, marine organism etc.) is not clearly identified, authenticated, and documented;
  6. experimental work on antioxidant activity of crude extracts without isolation, identification and content estimation of the active compounds;
  7. experimental work on antimicrobial activity with crude extracts without isolation and identification of the active compounds, with large MIC values (μg/mL) for antimicrobial activity (≥ 250 μg/mL for plant extracts and ≥ 50 μg/ml for pure compounds), and without proper identification of culture collections/strain designation codes;
  8. experimental work on essential oils with only one sample of a single plant specimen with a single chromatographic analysis and without proper statistical analysis; without oil yield (%) and characterization and components quantification not performed using GC-MS-FID and the analysis of the retention indexes of the components not calculated using n-alkane homologous series together with analysis some of the isolated natural components. Biological activity results without chemical characterization of the compounds.
  9. Too preliminary data using in-vitro assays will not be acceptable, when i) no information on the type of activity is given; ii) single dose or very high concentrations (must show dose-response studies); iii) repetition of a simple bioassay (usually one assay with replicates); iv) lack of proper controls (solvents; positive or negative substances according to the study); v) no IC50 values whenever it is the case.
  10. manuscripts with repetition of a single bioassay for yet another extract or plant;
  11. use solely the brine shrimp assay (Artemia salina) to access toxicity of extracts;
  12. isolation and bioassay of well known compounds with tiny or no relation to the activity or to the plant medicinal use without clear justification;
  13. manuscripts reporting pharmacological or biological activities of crude extracts without chemical and technical standardization.

2. Rules for the elaboration of contributions

2.1 The author(s) should retain a copy (electronic and paper) of the submitted manuscript, in the event the loss or damage to the original sent to the journal.

2.2 The figures (photographs, charts, drawings etc) and tables should be inserted close to the point at which they are discussed and numbered consecutively in Arabic numbers. The respective captions should be clear, concise, with no abbreviations, and located underneath the figures. Their respective position in the text should be indicated preferentially just after their citation in the body of the manuscript.
When figures are from another font, a formal authorization is required.

2.3 Tables should be presented after the References and numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers. Tables (numeric data) should not be closed by side lines. The respective captions must be clear, concise, with no abbreviations, and located above table. There should be an indication of the approximate position in the text where tables should be placed, preferentially, just after their citation in the body of the manuscript.

2.4 The captions of botanical illustrations (anatomical description abbreviations) should be in accordance with the rules adopted by the Journal. Please request standards by email to revista@sbfgnosia.org.br.

3. Text formatting and contents of the work

3.1 Original papers: Original papers are research articles describing original experimental results. The manuscript should be arranged in the following order: Title, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Figures with Legends, Tables, Structural Formulas. Results and Discussion sections may appear as a combined “Results and Discussion” section. The normal length of the main text of an Original Paper, excluding references, tables, figures and figure legends, is about 3,000 words. In exceptional and well justified cases longer manuscripts may be accepted. When submitting such manuscripts, authors should provide a justification statement in the cover letter, giving compelling reasons for the length of the paper.

3.2 Short communications: This section will cover mainly the isolation of known compounds from new neotropical fonts, or complementary results of an ongoing work. The text should be arranged as follows: Title, Abstract of 200 words, Keywords, Introductory Remarks, Material and Methods with brief experimental details without subheadings, Results and Discussion as one body of text without headlines, Acknowledgements, References up to 20 citations, Figures and/or Tables up to 3. Authors should limit the text and not exceed 2,000 words.

3.3 Reviews will generally be invited by the Editor-in-Chief, and will only be considered those with more than one hundred references. The main purpose of reviews is to provide a concise, accurate introduction to the subject matter, and inform the reader critically of the latest developments in the field. They should be as concise as possible and  not  include experimental details.

3.4. In addition to these Guidelines, a template (for original papers) and a sample cover letter are available at www.sbfgnosia.org.br/revista. Authors are strongly recommended to follow these formats when preparing a manuscript.

3.5 The originals should be on A4 size paper, double spaced using Times New Roman size 12 font, fully justified, with margins of 2 cm.

3.6 Title and subtitle: They should be in lower case, using Times New Roman size 14 font, and in accordance with the contents of the article, taking in consideration the scope and objectives of the Journal.

3.7 Authors: The authors’ names should appear centered underneath the title. The first and last names should appear in full, followed by the initials of all other names (e.g. Carlos N. U. Silva). In the case of several authors, the names should be separated by commas.

3.8 Authors’ affiliation: After each author name there should be superscript Arabic numbers indicating the institution to which they are affiliated. The list of institutions should appear immediately below the list of authors. The name of the corresponding author should be identified with a superscript asterisk indicating the address to which all correspondence should be sent. The electronic institutional address, telephone, and fax number of the main author should appear after references. The Journal will not publish commercial e-mail address.

3.9 Abstract: A brief and concise abstract with 200 or less words highlighting the most important information, including the methodology, results, and conclusions that allow readers to evaluate their interest in the article and thus avoiding the reading of the full work.

3.10 Keywords: Very important for data base searches, thus validating the article, the authors should identify a maximum of six Keywords, in alphabetical order and separated by commas, to represent the content of the article.

3.11 Introduction: The Introduction should clearly establish the objectives of the work and its relationship with other works in the same field. Extensive literature reviews should be replaced by references of more recent publications, where these reviews have been published, and are available.

3.12 Materials and methods: The description of the Material and the Methods used should be brief, and clear enough to make possible the comprehension and the reproducibility of the work. Processes and techniques already published, unless extensively modified, should be referenced. Plant names should be complete, including author name and family, according to http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/; www.theplantlist.org/ or www.tropicos.org.

3.13 Results: The Results should be presented with a minimum personal discussion or interpretation, and whenever possible, be accompanied by adequate tables and figures. The data, when pertinent, should be submitted to statistical analysis.

3.14 Discussion: The Discussion must be restricted to the significance of the data presented, avoiding conclusions not based on them. Alternatively, at the discretion of the author, the Results and Discussion could be presented in one section.

3.15 Acknowledgements: This is an optional item. Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article by making substantial contributions to the article.

3.16 Authors' contributions: The role of each author for the development of the study and/or the elaboration of the manuscript must be clearly described, referred to by their initials. Please see template for example.

4. References

The formatting of the references should be standardized to conform to the requirements of the journal as outlined. Preferentially use references that can be accessed by the readers worldwide.

4.1 References inside the text: at the beginning of the citation: Author in lower case, followed by the publication year between parenthesis, e.g. Pereira (1999); at the end of the citation: Author in lower case and year, both between parenthesis. e.g. (Silva, 1999) or (Silva and Souza, 1998) or (Silva et al., 1999) or (Silva et al., 1995a,b); textual citation: the page must be provided, e.g. (Silva, 1999, p. 24).

4.2 The references should be presented in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author, in lower case in ascending order of the publication date. Take into consideration the following possibilities:

4.2.1 Article from a periodical: Title of the periodical in italics abbreviated conform Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (http://www.cas.org/sent.html or http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/). In the case of an authorized abbreviation of a certain periodical can not be located and it is not obvious, the title should be cited complete (e.g.):
Kumar, D., Bhujbal, S.S., Deoda, R.S., Mudgade, S.C., 2010. In-vitro and in-vivo antiasthmatic studies of Ailanthus excelsaRoxb. on guinea pigs. J. Sci. Res. 2, 196-202.

In case the cited journal can not be easily accessible, it is recommended to present its Chemical Abstract Number, as follows:
Qu, W., Li, J., Wang, M., 1991. Chemical studies on Helicteres isora L. Zhongguo Yaoke Daxue Xuebao 22, 203-206, apud Chemical Abstracts 116, 124855r.

In a citation the sources should be shown in italics:
Wax, E.T., 1977. Antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. J. Braz. Biol. Res. 41, 77-82, apud Nat. Prod. Abs. 23, 588-593, 1978.

4.2.2 Book:
Costa, A.F., 1996. Farmacognosia. Lisboa: Calouste Gulbenkian.

4.2.3 Book chapter:
ElSohly, M.A., Stanford, D.S., Murphy, T.P., 2007. Compounds properties and drug quality. In ElSohly, M.A. (org.) Forensic Science and Medicine: Marijuana and the Cannabinoids. New Jersey: Humana Press, p. 51-66.

4.2.4 Thesis or dissertation materials:
Singab, A.N.B.I., 1996. Phytochemical studies of some potential bioactive Egyptian plants. Tokyo, 173 p. PhD Thesis, Meiji College of Pharmacy.
Romero, M.A.V., 1997. Estudo químico de Brunfelsia hopeana Benth e do mecanismo de ação da escopoletina. João Pessoa, 119p. Dissertação de Mestrado, Programa de Pós-graduação em Produtos Naturais, Universidade Federal da Paraíba.

4.2.5 Scientific meetings:
Oliveira, R.M.M.W., Lolli, L.F., Santos, C.A.M., 2006. Possible involvement of GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor in the anxiolytic-like effect induced by Passiflora actinia extracts in mice. 19th ECNP Congress. Paris, France.

4.2.6 Patents: Should be identified as indicated below; whenever possible the Chemical Abstracts Service number should be informed.
Ichikawa, M., Ogura, M., Lijima, T., 1986. Antiallergic flavones glycoside from Kalanchoe pinnatum. Jpn. Kokai Tokyo Koho JP 61,118,396, apud Chemical Abstracts 105, 178423q.

4.2.7 Internet pages:
Taylor, L., 2000. Plant based drugs and medicines. http://www.raintree.com/plantdrugs.htm, accessed Oct 2009.

5. Abbreviations

Units will be in accordance with the International System (SI) as adopted by the 11th General Conference on Weights and Measures. Common abbreviations to be used are m meter; cm centimeter; mm millimeter; µm micrometer; nm nanometer; kg kilogram; g gram; mg milligram; µg microgram; ng nanogram; ml milliliter; µl microliter; s seconds; min minutes; h hours; N normal; M molar; mM millimolar; µM micromolar; SD standard deviation; SE standard error; X mean; Ci Curie; mp melting point; bp boiling point; TLC thin-layer chromatography; GC gas chromatography; NMR nuclear magnetic resonance; MS mass spectrometry; UV ultraviolet; CD circular dichroism; and IR infrared; g instead rpm; ppm parts per million; cpm counts per minute; dpm disintegrations per minute; Hz hertz; LD50 medial lethal dose; LC50 medial lethal concentration; TLV threshold limit value. When using a word that is asserted to be a proprietary term or trade mark, authors must use the symbol ®.

6. Illustration

6. 1 The quality of the illustrations depends on the quality of the originals provided. Figures cannot be modified or enhanced by the journal production staff. The graphics must be submitted as part of the manuscript file. Contrast is important.

6.2 Remove all color from graphics, except for those graphics that author(s) would consider for publication in color (see Costs section for details).

6.3 Chemical structures should be drawn according to the ACS (American Chemical Society) style. Structure drawing preferences can be found as preset style in appropriate softwares.

6.4 Upload each figure in either .tiff .jpg or .eps format, the figure number and the top of the figure indicated. Lettering must be with Arial font of a reasonable size that would still be clearly legible upon reduction and consistent within each figure and set of figures. Where a key to symbols is required, please, include this in the figure legend.

6.5 The journal uses recycled paper, so colour pictures are accepted and will be available only online unless the author(s) agree to cover the extra expenses for the print publication irrespective of the number of pages of the article.

7. Submission of manuscripts

7.1 Manuscripts which do not meet acceptable standards will be returned to the authors.

7.2 Manuscript submissions will be processed exclusively online at http://mc04.manuscriptcentral.com/rbfar-scielo. Please follow carefully the guidelines for authors. Submissions by e-mail will not be accepted.

7.3 Important: All authors, with their respective e-mail addresses, should be entered into the system.

7.4 The qualification of the manuscript will be certified by at least two referees indicated by the Editorial Board.

8. Processing fee

8.1. The journal charges nominal publication fee for articles upon acceptance to cover production cost.

8.2 The charge is US$ 200.00/paper when the corresponding author is a member of the Brazilian Society of Pharmacognosy and US$ 300.00/paper for nonmembers. Articles with high scientific relevance will have reduced fee.

8.3 A limited number of waivers for article-processing charges are also available at the editors' discretion, and authors wishing to apply for these waivers should contact the editors.

8.4 Editors and reviewers have no access to whether authors are able to pay; decisions to publish are only based on editorial criteria.

9. Proofs and reprints

9.1. Galley proofs will be sent to all authors as a PDF file. Rephrasing of sentences, or additions, is not permitted at the page proof stage. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that all authors listed on the manuscript agree with the changes made on the proofs. Galley proofs should be returned within five days of receipt in order to ensure timely publication of the manuscript.

9.2 The journal does not provide reprints to corresponding authors.

9.3 Before publication, the articles will be available ahead of print on the Scielo Portal.

For further information, please contact:

Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
Prof. Cid Aimbiré M. Santos - Editor
Laboratório de Farmacognosia,
Departamento de Farmácia - UFPR
Rua Pref. Lothario Meissner, 632 - Jd Botânico
80210-170, Curitiba-PR, Brasil

September, 2013.